電爐爐襯用耐火磚的性能特點Performance characteristics of firebrick used in lining of electric furnace

 行業動态    |      2019-06-08

    鐵合金電爐耐火材料包括爐頂耐火材料、爐牆耐火材料和熔池耐火材料(爐坡和爐底)三部分。在鐵合金冶煉過程中,不同部分的耐火材料處于不同的工作狀态。
    爐頂耐火材料主要随高溫爐氣和噴附爐渣的侵蝕沖擊作用,加料間歇間的溫度變化和高溫弧光的輻射熱,塌料時的氣流沖擊及壓力變化。
    爐牆耐火材料主要承受電弧的高溫輻射作用和加料間歇期間的溫度變化;高溫爐氣和噴附爐渣的侵蝕沖擊作用;固體料和半熔料的沖擊磨損作用;渣線附近嚴重的渣蝕和渣沖擊作用。此外,在爐體傾動時,還承受額外的壓力。
    爐坡和爐底耐火材料主要承受上層爐料或鐵水的壓力;加料間歇期間的溫度變化、爐料沖擊和弧光熔損作用;高溫鐵水和熔渣的侵蝕沖擊作用。
    為了保證電爐能夠正常工作,必須選用耐火度和荷重軟化溫度高,耐急冷熱性和抗渣性好,有較大熱容量和一定導熱性能的耐火材料來砌築電爐爐襯。
    鐵合金生産中經常選用的爐襯耐火材料的性能和使用特點如下。
    1、黏土磚
    制造黏土磚的主要原料是具有良好塑性和結合力的耐火黏土。
    黏土磚的主要性能特點是:對酸性渣的抵抗能力較強,有較好的耐急冷急熱性,有良好的保溫能力和一定的絕緣性能;耐火度和荷重軟化溫度較低。黏土磚不宜直接在高溫條件和特殊要求情況下使用。
    在鐵合金生産中,黏土磚主要用于砌築礦熱爐暴露部位的爐牆爐襯,起保溫和絕緣作用的爐牆和爐底外層爐襯或用于砌築鐵水包内襯。
    2、高鋁磚
    制造高鋁磚的主要原料是高鋁礬土,黏結劑為耐火黏土。
    與黏土磚相比,高鋁磚的最大優點是耐火度、荷重軟化皡度高,抗渣性好,機械強度大。缺點是高鋁磚的耐急冷急熱性不好。
    在鐵合金生産中,高鋁磚可用于砌築礦熱爐出鐵口襯磚,精煉電爐爐頂,也可以用于砲築鐵水包内襯。
    3、鎂磚和鎂砂
    制造鎂磚的主要原料是菱鎂礦,黏結劑為水和鹵水或亞硫酸鹽紙漿廢液。
    鎂磚的主要性能特點是:耐火度高,對堿性渣有極好的抵抗能力;但是導熱系數和高溫下的導電系數較大,而且荷重軟化溫度較低,耐急冷急熱性較差。在高溫下受水或蒸汽作用時發生粉化。
    在鐵合金生産中,鎂磚用于砌築高碳鉻鐵還原電爐、中低碳鉻鐵轉爐、搖爐及精煉電爐的爐牆、爐底和盛放鉻鐵及中低碳錳鐵的鐵水包内襯等。用鎂鋁磚代替鎂磚砌築爐頂。鎂砂的耐火度很高,在鐵合金生産中,鎂砂常用于打結爐底,制作并修補爐牆、爐底,并可作為堵眼或制作打結錠模用材料。

    4、炭磚
    制造炭磚的主要原料是碎焦炭和無煙煤,黏結劑是煤焦油或瀝青。
    炭磚與其他普通耐火材料相比,不僅抗壓強度大,熱膨脹系數小,耐磨性好,耐火度和荷重軟化溫度高,耐急冷急熱性好,而且抗渣性特别好。因此,凡是冶煉不怕滲碳的鐵合金品種,都可以采用炭磚作為礦熱爐爐襯材料。
    但炭磚在高溫條件下極易氧化,而且其導熱系數和導電系數都較大,在鐵合金生産中,炭磚主要用于砌築礦熱爐不暴露于空氣部分的爐牆、爐底。
    電爐爐襯耐火材料配置及不同的砌築方法可以降低礦熱電爐的電能消耗,延長電爐使用壽命周期,從而降低企業生産成本。

    本公司長期出售優質高鋁磚,粘土磚、矽磚等,價格合理,質量優。聯系電話:0086-13608670776

Ferroalloy furnace refractories include three parts: top refractories, wall refractories and molten pool refractories (furnace slope and bottom).In the process of ferroalloy smelting, different parts of refractories are in different working states.

The impact of high temperature furnace gas and spray slag on the refractory on the top of the furnace, the temperature change between feeding intervals, the radiation heat of high temperature arc light, the air flow impact and pressure change during the collapse of the furnace.

The refractory of furnace wall is mainly subjected to the high temperature radiation of arc and the temperature change during the intermittent feeding.Erosion shock effect of high temperature furnace gas and blast furnace slag;Impact wear of solid and semi-molten materials;Serious erosion and impact of slag near the slag line.In addition, the furnace body tilting, but also under additional pressure.

Furnace slope and bottom refractory mainly bear the pressure of upper burden or molten iron;Temperature change, charge impact and arc melting during intermittent charging period;Erosion impact of hot molten iron and slag.

In order to ensure the normal operation of the electric furnace, it is necessary to choose refractory and load softening temperature high, rapid cold and hot resistance and slag resistance, there is a greater heat capacity and a certain thermal conductivity of refractory materials to masonry furnace lining.

The properties and characteristics of lining refractories often used in ferroalloy production are as follows.

1. Clay bricks

The main raw material for making clay bricks is refractory clay with good plasticity and binding force.

The main performance characteristics of clay brick are as follows: strong resistance to acid slag, good quench and heat resistance, good insulation ability and certain insulation performance;Low fire resistance and load softening temperature.Clay bricks should not be used directly under high temperature conditions and special requirements.

In the production of ferroalloy, clay bricks are mainly used for laying the lining of the exposed part of mineral heat furnace, the outer lining of the wall and bottom of the furnace, or the lining of molten iron ladle.

2. High alumina bricks

The main raw material of high alumina brick is high alumina clay, and the binder is refractory clay.

Compared with clay brick, high alumina brick is the biggest advantage is, high load softening Hao degrees refractoriness, good slag resistance, mechanical strength.The disadvantage is that the high aluminum brick is not good in heat and cold resistance.

In the production of ferroalloy, high alumina bricks can be used for laying bricks at the iron mouth of mineral hot furnace, refining the top of electric furnace, and lining of molten iron ladle.

3. Magnesite brick and magnesite

The main raw material for making magnesite bricks is magnesite and the binder is water and brine or sulfite pulp waste liquor.

The main properties of magnesite bricks are as follows: high refractoriness and excellent resistance to alkaline slag;However, the thermal conductivity and conductivity at high temperature are larger, and the softening temperature under load is lower, and the resistance to rapid cooling and heat is worse.Pulverization occurs at high temperatures when subjected to water or steam.

In the production of ferroalloy, magnesite brick is used for laying the wall and bottom of high carbon ferrochrome reductive electric furnace, medium and low carbon ferrochrome converter, shaking furnace and refining electric furnace, as well as the lining of molten iron ladling containing ferrochrome and medium and low carbon ferromanganese.Use magnesite - aluminum brick instead of magnesite brick to build furnace top.Magnesite has a high fire resistance. In ferroalloy production, magnesite is often used for knotting furnace bottom, making and repairing furnace wall and bottom, and can be used as material for blocking holes or making knotting ingot mould.

4, carbon brick

The main raw materials for making carbon bricks are broken coke and anthracite, and the binder is coal tar or asphalt.

Compared with other common refractories, carbon bricks not only have high compressive strength, small thermal expansion coefficient, good abrasion resistance, high refractoriness and load softening temperature, good quench and heat resistance, but also have good slag resistance.Therefore, all smelting is not afraid of carburizing varieties of ferroalloy, can be used as mineral heat furnace lining materials.

However, carbon bricks are easy to be oxidized at high temperature, and their thermal conductivity and conductivity coefficient are large. In the production of ferroalloy, carbon bricks are mainly used for laying the wall and bottom of the mineral heat furnace which are not exposed to air.

The lining refractory material configuration and different laying methods of electric furnace can reduce the electric energy consumption of mineral thermal electric furnace, extend the life cycle of electric furnace, and thus reduce the production cost of enterprises.

Our company sells high quality high alumina brick, clay brick, silicon brick and so on for a long time, the price is reasonable, the quality is superior.Contact number: 0086-13608670776